Roses grow in many parts of the world; but they grow best in the temperate parts of the world - places where humans also tend to thrive. Many hybrid tea roses, damasks, and many floribundas will do best in Mediterranean climates. Gallicas, English roses, and modern shrubs might do a bit better in maritime climates. Most of Europe lies in either the Mediterranean climate zone or the Marine climate zone. Since this is where most rose breeding started, it only makes sense that roses do best in these zones.
The warm and cool continental climates are suitable for most roses. It would have been in the warm continental climate that the chinas and giganteas that give today's roses large flowers and remontance originated. The roses from this region and their closest relatives are, however, not cold hardy in cooler climates.
Wichurianas and rugosas hale from a cool continental region of east Asia and may require afternoon shade in the hotter parts of these regions.
The biggest challenge facing many rose lovers in continental climate zones is that too many hybrid tea roses have been bred and released with a kind of cavalier disregard for potential fungal disease problems. This is especially true for a number of hybrid teas bred on the west coast of the US.
It is such roses that have given the entire genus and the rose growing industry a black eye. Fortunately, breeding trends of the last two decades have begun to mitigate the severity of the problem, if not the public perception of it. Fungal disease or spraying to prevent it are no longer integral to the task of growing all roses. There are even some good hybrid teas that do well without spraying.
Cold continental climates pose additional problems for many roses, but those suited to USDA zones 3 and 4 are worthy of consideration, especially those descended from rugosa and acicularis roses. Breeders Svejda, Buck, and Brownell have done a lot of work on cold hardy roses. The huge, perfectly formed high centered flowers are a little more difficult to find among these roses. And some of them, especially Svejda's foliferous offerings, lack fragrance. But a number of the roses bred for this market are super choices as low-care roses in climates cold or warm.
At the other extreme are the tropical and subtropical climate regions. Roses can be cultivated here, but humidity, heat, and dryness may pose special problems and require specific gardening steps such as automated irrigation and spraying. Similarly, roses can be grown in some desert regions with adequate irrigation. So the rose as a group of species is quite adaptable. People in most climate zones will find they are able to grow at least a few good cultivars.